Sunday, June 30, 2019

Biography - Pregnant Elizabeth Vernon 1572-1655 (Shakespeare's lover?) marries Earl of Southampton (Shakespeare's lover or Elizabeth's son?)

Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655) attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561-1636)

In 1999, a German professor of English, Hildegard Hammerschmidt - Hummel, proposed an intriguing, but highly tenuous, theory about Elizabeth Vernon (one of the Queen's chief ladies-in-waiting) mainly based on a sonnet whose authorship remains debated. She claims that the sonnet was written by William Shakespeare, & that additional evidence from portraits show that Elizabeth Vernon Wriothesley was Shakespeare's lover. Her eldest daughter Penelope was, according to this theory, a child of Shakespeare. If this were true, the late Lady Diana Spencer would be a descendant of William Shakespeare. (See: Hildegard Hammerschmidt-Hummel: Das Geheimnis um Shakespeares 'Dark Lady'. Dokumentation einer Enthüllung Darmstadt: Primus-Verlag 1999)
1590 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655)

And so the story goes -- Elizabeth Wriothesley (née Vernon), Countess of Southampton (1572–1655) was one of the ladies-in-waiting to Elizabeth I of England in the later years of her reign. She was born in Hodnet, Shropshire, England to Sir John Vernon of Hodnet & Elizabeth Devereux.
Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655), probably dressed for the coronation of James I of England in 1603 in white with her countess's coronet & mantle

In August of 1598, Elizabeth married Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, the patron of William Shakespeare. The hasty marriage occurred, after Elizabeth learned that her young lady-in-waiting was pregnant. Upon discovering this, the Queen had both Elizabeth & her new groom locked in Fleet Prison. After their release, they were never again to be allowed in the company of extremely displeased Queen Elizabeth.
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), Detail

Another favorite of Elizabeth I, Henry Wriothesley, (1573–1624), was the only known patron of Shakespeare, who dedicated Venus and Adonis to him (1593). Southampton's openly tempestuous relationship with the Queen culminated in his involvement in the Earl of Essex's rebellion in 1601. Condemned to death by Elizabeth when the rebellion failed, his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment; and he was released by the new King James I, after Elizabeth's death. Southampton was known at court for his flamboyant appearance, particularly his striking long auburn hair.
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), by Nicholas Hilliard

Here the tenuous theory of Elizabeth Vernon actually being Shakespeare's lover finds some competition. Some note that Shakespeare’s sonnets often seem to be directly addressed to the passionate Wriothesley, who was the patron not just of Shakespeare but also of a whole group of writers & scholar–poets, including Thomas Nashe, John Florio, & George Wither. He was a close friend of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. In an unusual coincidence, Elizabeth Vernon was Essex’s cousin.
The Tower Portrait of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), 1603 by John Decritz the Elder

Shakespeare's first 17 sonnets are said by some Shakespeare scholars to refer to Southampton. There a youth of rank & wealth is admonished to marry & beget a son so that "his fair house" may not fall into decay. Southampton was then unmarried, had vast possessions, & was the sole male representative of his family, his father having died when he was only 8. In Sonnet 20, Shakespeare describes Southampton as the "master-mistress of passion" writing that Dame Nature originally intended Southampton to be a woman–but falling in love with her–turned her into a man instead. In Sonnet 53, Shakespeare wonders how beautiful Southampton would look dressed as Helen of Troy.
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624)

Documents seem to show that Elizabeth Vernon actually was emotionally involved with Wriothesley. Courtier Rowland Whyte wrote in 1595, "My Lord of Southampton do with too much familiarity court the fair Mistress Vernon." In 1598, Whyte commented, "I hear my Lord Southampton goes...to France and so onward in his travels; which course of his doth extremely grieve his mistress that passes her time in weeping and lamenting." And he reports again a few weeks later, "My Lord of Southampton is gone and left behind him a very desolate Gentlewoman that almost wept out her fairest eyes." Upon Southampton's return to England, he & Elizabeth Vernon were married. (See Letters and Memorials of State. Edited by Arthur Collins. 1746)
1618 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655)

To complicate matters even further, some scholars believe the Prince Tudor theory that Southampton was the natural son of Edward de Vere Earl of Oxford & Queen Elizabeth. Besides the clues in Shakespeare's sonnets, they also note that in the 1603 portrait of Southampton in the Tower, the impresa in the upper right corner depicts a connection to royalty. It depicts a castle with swans swimming in the unusually "troubled waters" of the moat surrounding it. The swan is traditionally a royal symbol, & it is mute.
The young Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624)

When he finished his 4 years at St John's College, Cambridge in 1589 at age 16, he was presented formally to Queen Elizabeth at court. The queen had her then favorite, the Earl of Essex, take the young man under his wing. In 1592, Southampton was among the noblemen who accompanied Elizabeth to Oxford. A year later, Southampton was mentioned for nomination as a knight of the garter; at his age, an unprecedented compliment outside the circle of the sovereign's kinsmen. In 1595, he distinguished himself in the queen's presence in honor of the 37th anniversary of her reign. George Peel, in his account of the scene in his "Anglorum Feriæ," referred to him as the most chivalrous Bevis of Southampton.
1620 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655) perhaps by Dutch artist Paul van Somer (c.1576–1621).

And so, Elizabeth Vernon did get pregnant. She did marry the Earl of Southampton. She did have a baby girl.  Some postulate that she may have been Shakespeare's secret love, & that her baby may have been Shakespeare's. Others speculate that Southampton may have been Shakespeare's love, & that Southampton may have been the secret son of Queen Elizabeth, the Prince Tudor. In this scenario, if the baby was Southampton's, it may have been the Queen's grandchild.
1622 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561-1636)

Saturday, June 29, 2019

1500s Women Musicians by Italian Andrea Solario active 1495-1524

Andrea Solario (Italian Renaissance painter, active 1495-1524) Woman Playing the Viola

Andrea Solario (Italian Renaissance painter, active 1495-1524) A Woman c 1510

Friday, June 28, 2019

More Dog Days of Summer - 16-17C Children & Dogs (Okay, not all Women, but couldn't resist)

1604 Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614)  Portrait of Bianca Degli Utili Maselli with Six of Her Children and a dog & a bird.
 Anonymous, Portrait of Sixtus van der Laen, 1622
 Attributed to Cornelis de Vos, Portrait of a little boy with a dog and a basket, 1622.
 Brabant school, the end of the 17th century. Three year old girl & her dog at a fountain.
 Adriaen Hanneman (Dutch painter, c 1604-1671)  Portrait of Prince William III of Orange with his dog & an orange tree, of course, 1654
 Anthony van Dyck (Flemish artist, 1599- 1641)  Portrait of Prince William II of Orange (1626-1650), 1631-1632,
 Bartholomeus van der Helst - Little Girl with a Dog in a Garden, 1658
 Dirck Dircksz van Santvoort  The family of Dirck Bas Jacobsz, burgomaster of Amsterdam, 1634
Erasmus Quellinus II (1607–1678) and Jan Fijt, (1611-1661), portrait of a young boy & his dogs c 1650-55
 Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, Portrait of a Girl with a Dog
 Jan Albertsz Rotius (attr.), Portrait of a Young Boy & his dog,
 Jan Albertsz. Rotius, Portrait of a Boy with a Dog, 1660
 Jan Claesz., Portrait of a little child with a basket of cherries, 'AETATIS SVAE 1¼ ANNO 1606’
 Claesz van Swanenburgh - Portrait of a Girl & her dog, 1584
Wybrand de Geest, Boy with a dog, 1647
1605 Artist van Zelven, Portrait of a Young Boy with a Dog is the only recorded work by the artist identified on the floor tiles.
 1600s Bartholomeus Meyburgh (1624-1708) A Portrait of a Boy and his spaniel
 1600s Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen (Dutch or Flemish artist, 1593-1661) The Children of Juan Carlos Boveri with their dog
1600s Jean Michelin (French painter, 1616-1670) Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Diana with her dogs
1600s Peter Danckerts de Rij (1605–1661) Unknown Polish Princess of the Vasa dynasty in Spanish costume with her dog.
1600s Pierre Mignard (French artist, 1612-1695) Louise Marie Anne de Bourbon of Athénaïs by King Louis XIV blowing bubbles with her dog and a bird
1600s Pierre Mignard (French artist, 1612-1695) Marie-Anne De Bourbon (1666-1739) with her dog and a parrot
 1600s Unknown artist, Philippe, Duke of Orléans and his brother with their dog
1570 Sofonisba Anguissola (1532-1625)  Catherine Michelle (Infanta Catalina Micaela of Spain ) and Isabella Clara Eugenia with a dog and a parrot.
1581 Jacob Willemsz. Delff (Dutch artist, c 1550-1601) A Little Boy with Dog
1600 Bartolomé González y Serrano, (Spanish artist, 1564-1627) The Infants Don Alfonso Caro and Doaa Ana Margarita with a dog
1615-20 Jacob van Doort (or Van Doordt) (Dutch painter, 1590-1629). Ulrik, Prince of Denmark (1611-1633), Son of Christian IV) with his dog
1620 Daniel Mytens (Dutch painter, 1590-1647) Lady Mary Feilding, Countess of Arran (1613-1638). Inscribed Aetatis 7 A0 1620. with her dog
1625 Unknown Flemish artist, Portrait of a Young Boy with a Bird and Dog
1630 Justus van Egmont (1601–1674) Charles II of England as Prince of Wales with his dog
1563 Studio of Pieter Aertsen (1508-1575)  Sister and Brother with Dog
1634 Paulus Moreelse (Dutch artist, 1571-1638) Moreelse Boy with a Dog
1640s Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (Spanish artist, c 1612-1667) María Teresa (1638–1683), Infanta of Spain with her dog
1653 Attributed to Jan Weesop (Flemish artist, active in England) Esmé Stuart, 5th Duke of Lennox and 2nd Duke of Richmond (1649-1660) with 2 dogs
1657 Nicolaes Maes, (Dutch painter, 1634-1693) Portrait of Four Children with their dog
1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait Of A Young Man, with a Spaniel & a dead Hare
 1660-80s Nicolaes Maes Portrait of a Boy as Adonis
1620 Thomas de Keyser (Dutch painter, c. 1596–1667) Portrait of a Young Boy with his dog
1542 Titian Tiziano Vercelli (Italian painter, c 1488-1576) Clarissa Strozzi Aged Two with her dog
 1686 Pierre Mignard (French artist, 1612-1695) Philip V of Spain holding a black dog
 1687 Nicolaes Maes Portrait of a Mother and two Children In a Park with a spaniel
1690s James Maubert (Irish artist, 1666-1746) A portrait group of the Smith children with a dog and a parrot
1600s Anthony van Dyck (Flemish artist, 1599- 1641) The Five Children of King Charles I with their dog
1695 Unknown English artist, Mary Myddelton (1688–1747), and William Myddelton (1694–1718), 4th Bt, as Children with their dog
1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Boy in Classic Costume with a dog
 1684 Benjamin Block (1631-1690) Kaiser Joseph I. (1678-1711) with his dog
1660 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Child as Cupid with Dog at his side & a bird on his hand.  Nicolaes Maes began depicting children in classical costume during the early 1660s.
1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) A Boy in a Classical costume with a finch on his hand and a dog by his side
1600s Paulus Moreelse (Dutch artist, 1571-1638) Child with a Dog
1561 Workshop of François Clouet (1515–1572) Portrait of Hercule-François, Duke of Alençon, Anjou and Brabant (1555-1584) holding a puppy
1568 Johan Baptista van Uther (Dutch painter, fl 1562-1597) Crown Prince Sigismund Vasa (1566-1632) with his dog
1582 Emilia Antwerpiana van Nassau (1581-1657) holding a puppy.
1570-90 Sofonisba Anguissola (1532-1625) Three Children with a Dog
1600 Tiberio di Tito (Italian artist, 1573–1627)  Portrait of Boy and his Dog
1611 Paulus van Somer (Flemish artist, c. 1577 -1621) Anne of Child with a Rattle and Dog
1618 Circle of Jan Claesz (Enkhuizen painter, b 1570- a 1618) An 8-year-old Boy of the Blauhulck Family with a Horse and a Dog
1622 Unknown artist from the Dutch (Friesland) School Portrait of a Girl, Aged One and her dog
 1622 Justus Sustermans (Flemish painter, 1597-1681) Boy with Dog
1622 Justus Sustermans (Flemish painter, 1597-1681), Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici (1617-1675) with his dog
1627 Anonymous, Portrait of a Boy and his dog & bird
1627 Wybrand de Geest (Dutch artist, 1592-1661-65) Portrait of Brothers and Sisters with their happy dog
1629 Hendrick Berckman (Dutch artist, 1629-1679) Young Boy with Dog
1630 Govaert Flinck Cleve (1615-1660) Young Girl as Diana with 2 Great Danes
1633  Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen (Dutch or Flemish artist, 1593-1661) Two Children with a Dog
1636 Harmen Willems Wieringa (Dutch painter, c 1597-1645) Portrait of Eelko Ferdinando van der Laen, 2  years old with 2 dogs
1640 Dirck Dircksz van Santvoort (Dutch artist, 1610–1680) Portrait of Hiob de Wildt with his Dog
1644 Unknown artist of the Dutch School Portrait of a Boy, Aged Three, with a Dog & a bird
1651 Frans Luycx (1604–1668) Erzherzog Karl Joseph (1649-1664) with his dog
1650-90 Unknown artist Young Children with a Spaniel and a Parrot
1654 Gerard van Honthorst (Dutch painter, 1590–1656) William III Prince of Orange in a Roman Costume with a dog
1659 Diego Velazquez (Spanish artist, 1599-1660) Infante Felipe Prospero with his dog
1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Boy with a goat cart and a spaniel.  Goats were used by the children in gardens to pull their play-chariots. This way these privileged children of the Dutch Golden Age, almost could feel like the children of the ancient gods, high above the rest of the world in wealth & future promise. The successful Dutch mercantile families, despite their often common birth, often enjoyed displaying the wealth of royalty.
 1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait of a very young boy with his dog
 1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait of a boy with a spaniel & a robin
1660-80s Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait of a young boy with a goat and a dog in a landscape
 1664 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) A Young Boy With His Dog in a Landscape
 1664 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait of a Girl at a Fountain with a Dog at her feet
1664 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait of a Girl at a Fountain with a Dog behind her
1665 Cesar Pietersz, or Cesar Boetius van Everdingen (1616-17-1678) Portrait of a Child as a Huntress with a Dog
1670s Queen Anne when a Princess with her dog by an unknown French artist (1668-1670)
 1673 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Boy in Classic Costume as a Hunter with Dog at this side
 1673 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Boy with Bird on his hand & Dog by his side.
 1673 Nicolaes Maes (Dutch artist, 1634-1693) Portrait Of Four Children As Mythological Figures with a dog
1680 Style of Pieter Nason (Dutch artist, c 1612-1688-90) Portrait of Anna Catharina van Heemskerck (1676-1723) with her dog
1680s Caspar Smits (fl. 1662-1689) John Arundell VIII (1678–1706), 3rd Baron Arundell of Trerice, as a Boy with his dog and his African companion
1695 Godfrey Kneller (born Gottfried Kniller) (German-born English artist, 1646-1723)  The Howard Children with a dog
1600s  Pierre Mignard (French artist, 1612-1695) Children of the Duc de Bouillon with their dog
1600s (after) Anthony van Ravesteyn the Younger (Dutch artist, 1580-1669) Portrait of a Girl with her dog
1600s Anthony van Dyck (Flemish artist, 1599- 1641) Philadelphia and Elizabeth Wharton with their dog
1600s Anthony van Dyck (Flemish artist, 1599- 1641) The Children of Charles I with their dogs
1600s Gilbert Jackson (English artist, active 1621-1642) Girl with her clipped Dog
1600s Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp (Dutch artist, 1594-1650) Michael Pompe van Slingelandt with his dog & a falcon
1600s Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp (Dutch artist, 1594–1650) Four-Year-Old Girl with Cat and Fish
1600s Jan Anthonisz van Ravesteyn (Dutch painter, 1572-1657)  Young Boy with a Golf Club and Ball plus a dog and a parrot
1600s Peter Lely (English artist, 1618-1680) Lady Henrietta Mordaunt with her dog
1680s Probably by a follower of Pierre Mignard (French artist, 1612-1695) Mademoiselle Leomenie Brienne Marquis de Roualt Gamache
1600s Wybrand de Geest (Dutch artist, 1592-1661-65) Boy with Dog
1600s Wybrand de Geest (Dutch artist, 1592-1661-65) Child with Drum and Dog
1600s Wybrand de Geest (Dutch artist, 1592-1661-65) Girl in a Green Dress with her dog

Dog Days of Summer is the name for the most sultry period of summer, from about July 3 to Aug. 11. Named in early times by observers in countries bordering the Mediterranean, the period was determined to extend from 20 days before to 20 days after the conjunction of Sirius (the dog star) & the sun.  The Greek poets Hesiod (ca. 750-650 BCE) & Aratus (ca. 310–240 BCE) refer, in their writings, to "the heat of late summer that the Greeks believed was actually brought on by the appearance of Sirius," a star in the constellation, that the later Romans, & we today refer to as Canis Major, literally the "greater dog" constellation. Homer, in the Iliad, references the association of "Orion's dog" (Sirius) with oncoming heat, fevers, & evil, in describing the approach of Achilles toward Troy:
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky
On summer nights, star of stars,
Orion's Dog they call it, brightest
Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat
And fevers to suffering humanity.

The term "dog days" was used by the Greeks in Aristotle's Physics.  Astronomer Geminus, around 70 B.C., wrote: "It is generally believed that Sirius produces the heat of the 'dog days,' but this is an error, for the star merely marks a season of the year when the sun"s heat is the greatest." The lectionary of 1559 edition of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer indicates: "Naonae. Dog days begin" with the readings for July 7 & end August 18. But the readings for September 5 indicate: "Naonae. Dog days end."  This corresponds very closely to the lectionary of the 1611 edition of the King James Bible which indicates the Dog Days beginning on July 6 & ending on September 5.